• The Merensky Reef, the source of most historical and current SA production, contains relatively higher PGM grades and ratios of Platinum (vs Palladium) • The UG2 Reef, a chromite-rich reef, is more consistent, but lacks Merensky’s high yield of Gold, Copper and Nickel byproducts.
The Merensky Reef is a layer of igneous rock in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in the North West, Limpopo, Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa which together with an underlying layer, the Upper Group 2 Reef (UG2), contains most of the world's known reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs) or platinum group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium. The Reef is 46 cm thick and bounded by thin chromite seams or stringers. The composition consists predominant
Oct 02, 2017· In South Africa, the PGM ore is mined in the western and eastern limb of the Bushveld Igneous Complex .Within the Bushveld Igneous Complex, the Merensky reef, the Platreef and Upper Group 2 (UG2) reef are exploited for platinum production [1, 4, 9].Merensky and Platreef have similar chemical and mineral composition [6, 10].These reefs typically have fairly low contents of sulphides.
The concept of project value tracking and its application in project planning at Anglo Platinum Flotation process optimization through frequent in-line grade measurement as an alternative to sampling surveys that deliver outdated results Case studies of simultaneous mining and mineral processing optimization applied to platinum and nickel operations Optimizing concentrate allocation to Anglo
Conference, Platinum in transition ‘Boom or Bust’, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2010. Application of fundamentals in optimizing platinum concentrator performance M.M. VALENTA and H. MAPHETO Metallicon Process Consulting (Pty) Ltd A number of challenges face platinum concentrator plant operators.
Dec 08, 2019· The first step in this process is to crush platinum containing ore and immerse it in the reagent containing water; a process known as 'froth flotation'. During flotation, air is pumped through the ore-water slurry. Platinum particles chemically attach on to the oxygen and rise to the surface in a froth that is skimmed off for further refining.
The successful development of an industrial process for the recovery of platinum-group metals from the UG-2 Reef. Application Report No.1, Mintek, Randburg. 23. Liddell K.S., McRae L.B., and Dunne R.C. (1985). Process routes for beneficiation of noble metals from Merensky and UG-2 ores.
The waste material from ore processing, usually a slurry of finely ground rock in water, from which most of the valuable minerals have been removed: UG2 Reef: Upper Group 2; a layer of the Bushveld Complex rich in chromite but lacking sulfide minerals. It possibly has a larger resource of platinum group elements than the Merensky Reef.
The Merensky Reef was the principal source of pgm from the time that it was first worked in 1925 until the end of the 20th century. However, extraction of other reefs has grown in importance, and by 2011 the Merensky Reef accounted for only 22 per cent of all the platinum ore processed in South Africa.
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The UG2 platinum-bearing chromitite horizon is seen in the upper part of the Critical zone. The Merensky Reef, with a thickness that ranges from 40 cm to 6 m in different parts of the Bushveld Complex (Kinnaird et al., 2004), is found above the UG2 horizon.
Platinum group elements (PGE) are recovered by flotation from the Merensky reef in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The reef contains approximately 1% sulphide minerals in the form of
DESCRIPTION : Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes.
THE IMPACT OF PLATINUM PRODUCTION FROM UG2 ORE ON FERROCHROME PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AFRICA L.A. Cramer1, J. Basson2 and L.R. Nelson3 1 Anglo Platinum Corporation, 55 Marshall St, Johannesburg, South Africa. E-mail: [email protected] 2 Pyrotek Consulting, South Africa. E-mail: [email protected]
Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.Its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver".. Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements.It has six naturally occurring isotopes.
crushing platinum group metals; Crushing And Grinding Platinum Diagram. crushing and grinding of platinum. crushing and grinding platinum diagram Get more info of silica sand mining process equipment for freeA grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid Contact Supplier crushing platinum group metals crushing and grinding platinum diagram greencast Aug 25 2016 The
by Anglo Platinum, but Merensky and UG2 ores are processed by all the producers. These ores are quite different from each other, and require different approaches to metallurgical processing. For example, UG2 ore has a much lower content of nickel and copper sulphides, and contains much more chromite than Merensky ore. The Platreef can
Jun 19, 2019· Merensky-type platinum deposits in mafic-ultramafic layered on the magma-cumulate interface because heterogeneous nucleation on pre-existing crystals is a kinetically favorable process
The Merensky concentrator (capacity 100 ktpm) is currently dedicated to processing Merensky ore from the Brakfontein shaft. The UG2 concentrator (capacity 65 ktpm) is dedicated to processing ore from the Middelpunt Hill UG2 adits and decline. Merensky MF3 Plant.
Published studies dealing with the process mineralogy of Pt mines on the Bushveld Complex is generally limited to the Western Bushveld. The recognition by mine management that another resource, in addition to the Upper Group 2 (UG2) reef currently being mined at the Two Rivers platinum mine (TRP), is urgently required in order to extend the life of mine, presented an opportunity to conduct
Platinum group elements (PGEs) are an important resource for many applications, such as automotive catalytic converters for vehicles, jewelry, electrical devices and as catalysts in the chemical and petroleum industries. the processing of Merensky and UG2 increased by about 12 and 24 Million t/a of material, respectively. This is a 2.5-fold
The NP2 reef Merensky ore is the easiest ore to process in terms. Results show that for both the Merensky and UG2 platinum ores, the HPGR product showed more fines and less coarse content
Merensky reef, and is consequently receiving more attention in present operations, with the depletion of Merensky reserves, which have been successfully exploited since the late 1920s. The increased tonnages of UG2 ore have been providing challenges in smelting or furnace processing, as a result of the increased chrome content. The changes in
Jun 11, 2018· Published studies dealing with the process mineralogy of Pt mines on the Bushveld Complex is generally limited to the Western Bushveld. The recognition by mine management that another resource, in addition to the Upper Group 2 (UG2) reef currently being mined at the Two Rivers platinum mine (TRP), is urgently required in order to extend the life of mine, presented an opportunity to
An overview of Southern African PGM smelting. by Anglo Platinum, but Merensky and UG2 ores are processed by all the producers. These ores are quite different from each other, and require different approaches to metallurgical processing.
Platinum The mineral native Platinum information and . The world's largest deposit of Platinum is in the Merensky Reef in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, though few specimens from South Africa ever make it to the mineral market. Colombia has produced fine placer nuggets in Choco Department, in the San Juan and Atrato Rivers near Papayan
Processing receives ore from the shafts which is allocated to either the UG2 Plant, for the higher chromium grade material, or the Central Concentrator for Merensky ore. Between 89% and 91% of the PGMs from the Merensky ore are recovered at mass pulls ranging from 5% to 7% utilising 10 primary mills, feeding two, nine stage, tank cell flotation
Kell Technology. The Kell Process has been developed for extraction of platinum group metals (PGM), gold, silver and base metals from PGM sulfide flotation concentrates without smelting. The hydrometallurgical process has been successfully demonstrated on several different PGM and polymetallic concentrates, including those from the UG2, Merensky and Platreef in South Africa,
May 11, 2015· The mine is currently being constructed to extract and process platinum group metals and associated minerals from the Merensky and UG2 reefs over a 20 plus year mine-life. The WBJV Project 1 platinum mine will exploit one of the last large, near surface sections of the Merensky Reef no further than 1 000 m below surface.
• The major players in the platinum industry in South Africa (Anglo Platinum and Impala Platinum) have traditionally concentrated more on exploitation ofthe Merensky Reef. This situation has been changing over the past few years (Vermaak, 1995). • In addition, the atmosphere of secrecy prevailing in the platinum industry means
Mar 20, 2012· The mill scale-up was a successful partnering initiative with Anglo American Platinum working closely with Xstrata Technology of Australia and the manufacturers Netzsch Feinmahltechnik GmbH. A period of flow-sheet evolution guided by process mineralogy in the last decade has led to a new process flowsheet at the UG2 Concentrators.
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